BioLegend offers a comprehensive portfolio of products, including antibodies, immunoassays, recombinant proteins, and cell isolation kits, to interrogate neuroinflammation in the CNS.

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Purified anti-Podoplanin (Lymphatic Endothelial Marker)

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Podoplanin is expressed by a variety of normal cells, which include breast and prostate myopepithelial cells, follicular dendritic cells, basal keratinocytes of the skin and cervix (focal), type I pneumocytes, ependymal cells, and fetal cerebral germinal matrix cells. Podoplanin is a marker of lymphatic differentiation because it is expressed by normal human lymphatic endothelium, but not by vascular endothelium. It is diagnostically a useful marker for the evaluation of a variety of neoplasms, including Kaposi sarcoma mesothelioma, testicular germ cell tumors, and cutanneous sebaceous neoplasms.

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Purified anti-Rat Blood-Brain Barrier

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SMI 71 is specific for a rat endothelial protein found in areas with blood-brain or blood-nerve barriers. The antibody does not react with endothelia of periventricular organs or with fenestrated endothelia in peripheral tissues. Specifically, it has been shown that staining with SMI 71 is not observed in blood vessels and sinusoids in the liver, vessels in the heart, adrenal, skeletal muscle, intestine, thymus, lymph nodes, pancreas, thyroid, or skin. However, a patchy reaction was observed on some vessel walls of the spleen and epidermis of the skin3. Reactivity with the antibody develops in newborn rats along with maturation of the blood brain barrier. Reactivity disappears in lesions of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Contrary to the belief that astrocytes and perhaps neurons are essential for the establishment of the blood-brain barrier, destruction of neurons (monitored by SMI 311 and anti-MAP2) and of astrocytes (monitored by anti-GFAP and anti-S100B) leads only to transient abolition of SMI 71 reactivity and only transient transendothelial passage of serum albumin.

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Purified anti-TDP43

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TDP43, also known as TARDBP, was originally identified as a protein that binds to the transactivation response (TAR) sequence found in the long terminal repeat of the HIV-1 virus genome. TDP43 contains two copies of a ~90 amino acid RNA recognition motif (RRM) found in many proteins, which bind single stranded RNA. Recent research has shown that hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and N-terminally truncated TDP43 is the pathological hallmark lesion in most familial and sporadic forms of FTLD-U and ALS (1).

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Purified anti-Apo E4

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Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) belongs to a class of apolipoproteins that binds to lipids to form lipoproteins. ApoE is produced by the liver and macrophages in peripheral tissues where it regulates cholesterol metabolism. In the central nervous system, ApoE is primarily produced by astrocytes and plays an important role in transporting cholesterol to neurons via ApoE receptors. ApoE has three major isoforms corresponding to three alleles (ApoE2, ApoE3 and ApoE4) that differ from each other by only one or two amino acids at positions 112 and 158. ApoE4 is one of the largest known genetic risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Further, ApoE4 has been implicated in several other diseases such as atherosclerosis, impaired cognitive function and multiple sclerosis.

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PE anti-human P2RY12

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P2RY12 is a receptor for ADP and ATP coupled to G-proteins that inhibit the adenylyl cyclase second messenger system and is not activated by UDP and UTP.

P2RY12 is required for normal platelet aggregation and blood coagulation, and is a target to inhibit of platelet aggregation in the treatment of thromboembolisms and other clotting disorders. P2RY12 is expressed on platelets, lung, appendix, pituitary and adrenal glands; this molecule is a very useful marker to identify microglial cells in the brain.

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