Dendritic cells develop from the common macrophage and dendritic cells precursor (MDP) in the bone marrow. Monocytes and pDCs complete their development in the bone marrow, whereas cDCs will complete their development in peripheral tissues.
Under specific stimuli, both monocytes and pDCs can develop into cDCs. Monocytes can also give rise to macrophages, depending on the environment.
Mouse dendritic cells can be derived in vitro
using growth factor/cytokine cocktails, which dictate the DC sub-population that may be derived. GM-CSF
will mostly produce cDCs, whereas Flt3L will generate a mixture of cDCs and pDCs.
DCs generated in vitro
may have a different maturation state than terminally differentiated DCs that develop in vivo
. Maturation of in vitro
generated DCs may require additional stimuli, such as TLR stimulation with LPS, CpG and others.