- Other Names
- CD274, Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), B7 homolog 1 (B7h1)
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- Product Citations
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PD-L1 is a type I transmembrane protein of 290 amino acids, and it is a member of the B7 family. Human PD-L1 has 70% amino acid identity to its mouse orthologue. Binding of PD-L1 to its receptor PD-1 leads to the inhibition of T cell receptor–mediated lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion. PD-L1 induces IL-10 production in T cells stimulated with low levels of anti-CD3. PD-L1/PD-1 interaction suppresses immune responses against autoantigens and tumors and plays an important role in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. Disruption of the PD-L1 gene leads to up-regulated T cell responses and the generation of self-reactive T cells. Antibodies against PD-1 or PD-L1 leads to increased antitumor immunity. PD-L1 has an important role in conferring fetomaternal tolerance in an allogeneic pregnancy model; antibodies against PD-L1 lead to a breakdown in maternal tolerance to the fetus. PD-L1 shares its receptor with PD-L2 (CD273, B7-DC). PD-L2 has a more limited expression than PD-L1, being expressed on activated macrophages and dendritic cells. PD-L1 is expressed in many tumors, and the interaction with its receptor activates signaling pathways that inhibit T-cell activity and therefore the antitumor immune response. Antibodies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 block the PD-1 pathway and reactivate T cell activity.Product Details
- Human B7-H1, amino acids (Phe19-Arg238) (Accession# NP_054862) was expressed in CHO cells. Human IgG-Fc is in the carboxy-terminus.
- Molecular Mass
- The 453 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 51.2 kD. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Phe.
- >98% as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE and HPLC analyses.
- Lyophilized from 10mM Sodium Phosphate + 25 mM NaCl, pH 7.6.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.1 ng per µg of protein (<1.0 EU/µg), as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.) Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored at -20°C or -70°C for twelve months. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. Reconstitute in water to a concentration of 0.1 - 1.0 mg/ml. Do not vortex. It is recommended to further dilute in a buffer, such as 5% Trehalose, and store working aliquots at -20°C to -70°C. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- Immobilized human PD-L1 binds human PD-1 in a dose dependent manner. The ED50 = 0.2 - 0.8 µg/ml.
- Recommended Usage
- Product Citations
APC, monocytes, dendritic cells, expressed in nonlymphoid tissues, and stromal cell.
- Enhances CD28-independent T-helper cell function, suppresses immune responses against autoantigens, and participates in fetomaternal tolerance.
- Antigen-stimulated T and B cells, regulatory T cells, follicular T and B cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes.
- PD-1 (CD279).
- Immobilized human PD-L1 binds its receptor PD-1.
- Cell Type
- Embryonic Stem Cells
- Biology Area
- Immunology, Cancer Biomarkers, Costimulatory Molecules, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Adhesion Molecules, CD Molecules, Immune Checkpoint Receptors, Soluble Receptors
- Antigen References
1. Dong H, et al. 1999. Nat. Med. 5:1365.
2. Freeman GJ, et al. 2000. J. Exp. Med. 192:1027.
3. Latchman Y, et al. 2001. Nat. Immunol. 2:261.
4. Latchman YE, et al. 2004. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:10691.
5. Guleria I, et al. 2005. J. Exp. Med. 202:231.
6. Lin DY, et al. 2008. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:3011.
7. Dai S, et al. 2014. Cell Immunol. 290:72.
8. Melero I, et al. 2015. Nat. Rev. Cancer 15:457.
- Gene ID
- 29126 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about B7-H1 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.