BioLegend Gamma Delta T Cells
BackgroundNaive T cell
T cell receptor (TCR) diversity is generated by rearrangement of the variable, joining, and diversity gene segments. The TCR then associates with CD3 to complete the TCR complex. γδ T cells (gamma delta T cells) are a small subset of T cells that express a unique TCR. While most T cell express a TCR composed of α and β glycoprotein chains, γδ T cells display one γ chain and one δ chain. γδ T cells are less common compared to αβ T cells but are abundant in the gut mucosa. They are also found in the thymus, peripheral lymphoid tissue, and peritoneum. Unlike αβ T cells, γδ T cells do not require antigen processing in order to recognize certain bacterial, lipid, and tumor antigens bound to MHC Class IB.
While the precise role of γδ T cells is unclear, they are known to contribute to both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. The rearrangement of TCR genes produces junctional diversity, allowing them to develop a memory phenotype. On the other hand, their TCR can be used as a pattern recognition receptor, responding to microbial stimulation within hours. Recent work has shown γδ T cells are capable of phagocytosis and antigen presentation.
Nomenclature
Several TCR γ and δ chains were discovered and various nomenclature systems have been used. The early nomenclature designated genes by their order of discovery, while subsequent systems began to group genes based on homology and superfamily structure. As a result, several naming systems exist, resulting in confusion regarding equivalent names for different systems. In order to consolidate the various nomenclature systems, we have created charts for corresponding names across some of the most popular naming methods.
Human Mouse Pathways Products
Human TCR γ and δ
GAMMA CHAINS
IMGTLefranc/Foster1Strauss, Quertermous2WHO-IUIS3, 4
TRGV1Vγ1Vγ1.1 pseudogeneTCRGV1S1P
TRGV2Vγ2Vγ1.2TCRGV1S2
TRGV3Vγ3Vγ1.3TCRGV1S3
TRGV4Vγ4Vγ1.4TCRGV1S4
TRGV5Vγ5Vγ1.5TCRGV1S5
TRGV5PVγ5pVγ1.5 pseudogeneTCRGV1S5P
TRGV6Vγ6pVγ1.6 pseudogeneTCRGV1S6P
TRGV7Vγ7pVγ1.7 pseudogeneTCRGV1S7P
TRGV8Vγ8Vγ1.8TCRGV1S8
TRGV9Vγ9Vγ2TCRGV2S1
TRGV10Vγ10Vγ3TCRGV3S1P
TRGV11Vγ11Vγ4TCRGV4S1P
TRGVAVγAVA pseudogeneTCRGV5S1P
TRGVBVγBVB pseudogeneTCRGV6S1P
DELTA CHAINS
IMGTSatayanarana, et al.5WHO-IUIS3, 4 
TRDV1Vδ1TCRDV101S1 
TRDV2Vδ2TCRDV102S1 
TRDV3Vδ3TCRDV103S1 
1Lefranc et al. 1986. Cell 45:237.
2Strauss & Quertermous et al. 1987. Science 237:1217.
3WHO-IUIS Nomenclature Subcommittee for immunoglobulins and T cell receptors report. 2007. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 32: 461.
4Arden, B. et al. 1995. Immunogenetics 42:455.
5Satyanarayana et al. 1988. Proc. Natl. Acad. USA. 85: 8166.
*Special thanks to Dr. Wendy Havran, Dr. Willi Born, and Dr. Rebecca O’ Brien for their contributions to this page.
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